Campylobacter and antimicrobial resistance in dogs and humans: "One health" in practice


Antimicrobial resistance
Resistance genes

How to Cite

Iannino, F., Salucci, S., Di Donato, G., Badagliacca, P., Vincifori, G., & Di Giannatale, E. (2019). Campylobacter and antimicrobial resistance in dogs and humans: "One health" in practice. Veterinaria Italiana, 55(3), 203–220. https://doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1161.6413.3


Increasing antimicrobial resistance in both medicine and agriculture is recognised as a major emerging public health concern. Since 2005, campylobacteriosis has been the most zoonotic disease reported in humans in the European Union. Human infections due to Campylobacter spp. primarily comes from food. However, the human-animal interface is a potential space for the bidirectional movement of zoonotic agents, including antimicrobial resistant strains. Dogs have been identified as carriers of the Campylobacter species and their role as a source of infection for humans has been demonstrated. Furthermore, dogs may play an important role as a reservoir of resistant bacteria or resistance genes. Human beings may also be a reservoir of Campylobacter spp. for their pets. This review analyses the current literature related to the risk of Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance at the dog-human interface.



Aarestrup F.M. & Engberg J. 2001. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter. Vet Res, 32, 311-321.

Abay S., Kayman T., Otlu B., Hizlisoy H., Aydin F. & Ertas N. 2014. Genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacterjejuni isolates from poultry and humans in Turkey. Int J Food Microbiol, 178, 29-38.

Acke E., McGill K., Golden O., Jones B.R., Fanning S. & Whyte P. 2009. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacterspecies in household cats and dogs in Ireland. Vet Rec, 164 (2), 44-47.

Acke E., Whyte P., Jones B.R., McGill K., Collins J.D. & Fanning S. 2006. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacterspecies in cats and dogs in two animal shelters in Ireland. Vet Rec, 158, 51-54.

Akiba M., Lin J., Barton Y.W. & Zhang Q. 2006. Interaction of CmeABC and CmeDEF in conferring antimicrobial resistance and maintaining cell viability in Campylobacterjejuni. J Antimicrob Chemother, 57, 52-60.

Alfredson D.A. & Korolik V. 2005. Isolation and expression of a novel molecular class D beta-lactamase, OXA-61, from Campylobacterjejuni. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 2515-2518.

Altekruse S.F. & Tollefson L.K. 2003. Human Campylobacteriosis: a challenge for the veterinary profession. J Am Vet Med Ass, 223 (4), 445-452.

Amar C., Kittl S., Spreng D., Thomann A., Korczak B.M., Burnens A.P. & Kuhnert P. 2014. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Vet Microbiol, 168, 124-130.

Andrzejewska M., Szczepańska B., Klawe J.J., Śpica D. & Chudzińska M. 2013. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species in cats and dogs from Bydgoszcz (Poland) region. Polish J Vet Sciences, 16 (1), 115-120.

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). 2008. One Health: a new professional imperative. Final Report, July 15, 2008. www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reports/Documents/onehealth_final.pdf.

Bachoual R., Ouabdesselam S., Mory F., Lascols C., Soussy C.J. & Tankovic J. 2001. Single or double mutational alterations of gyrA associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Microb Drug Resist, 7 (3), 7257-7261.

Batchelor R.A., Pearson B.M., Friis L.M., Guerry P. & Wells J.M. 2004. Nucleotide sequences and comparison of two large conjugative plasmids from different Campylobacter species. Microbiology, 150(10), 3507-3517.

Bennett P.M. 2008. Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. British J Pharmacol, 153 (S1), S347-S357.

Bennett P.M. 2005. Genome plasticity. In Genomics, proteomics and clinical bacteriology. Methods in molecular biology, vol. 266 (Woodford N. & Johnson A. eds). Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 71-113.

Blaser M.J. & Engberg J. 2008. Clinical aspects of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections. In Campylobacter, 3 Ed. American Society of Microbiology, 99-121.

Bolton D.J. 2015. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors. Food Microbiol, 48, 99-108.

Burnens A.P., Angeloz-Wick B. & Nicolet J. 1992. Comparison of Campylobacter carriage rates in diarrheic and healthy pet animals. Zentbl Veter B, 39, 175-180.

Cagliero C., Mouline C., Cloeckaert A. & Payot S. 2006. Synergy between efflux pump CmeABC and modifications in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 in conferring macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 50 (11), 3893-3896.

Caldwell D.B., Wang Y. & Lin J. 2008. Development, stability, and molecular mechanisms of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 52 (11), 3947-3954.

Carbonero A., Torralbo A., Borge C., García-Bocanegra I., Arenas A. & Perea A. 2012. Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis infection-associated factors in healthy and ill dogs from clinics in Cordoba, Spain. Screening tests for antimicrobial susceptibility. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis, 35 (6), 505-512.

Carreira A.C., Clemente L., Rocha T., Tavares A., Geraldes M., Barahona M.J. & Cunha M.V. 2012. Comparative genotypic and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of zoonotic Campylobacter species isolated from broilers in a nationwide survey, Portugal. J Food Protect, 75 (12), 2100-2109.

Chaban B., Ngeleka M. & Hill J.E. 2010. Detection and quantification of 14 Campylobacter species in pet dogs reveals an increase in species richness in feces of diarrheic animals. BMC Microbiology, 10, 73.

Charvalos E., Tselentis Y., Hamzehpour M.M., Köhler T. & Pechere J.C. 1995. Evidence for an efflux pump in multidrug-resistant Campylobacterjejuni. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39 (9), 2019-2022.

Chopra I. & Roberts M. 2001. Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol Molecular Biol Rev, 65, 232-260.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2010. Methods for antimicrobial dilution and disk susceptibility testing for infrequently-isolated or fastidious bacteria: approved guidelines. CLSI M45-A2M, 30. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2012. Performance standards for antimicrobials disk susceptibility test. CLSI, Wayne, PA.

Connell S.R., Trieber C.A., Dinos G.P., Einfeldt E., Taylor D.E. & Nierhaus K.H. 2003. Mechanism of Tet (O) mediated tetracycline resistance. EMBO J, 22 (4), 945-953.

da Costa P.M., Loureiro L. & Matos A.J. 2013. Transfer of multidrug-resistant bacteria between intermingled ecological niches: the interface between humans, animals and the environment. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 10, 278-294.

Di Giannatale E., Di Serafino G., Zilli K., Alessiani A., Sacchini L., Garofolo G. & Marotta F. 2014. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and detection of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates in Italy. Sensors, 14 (2), 3308-3322.

Dionisi A.M., Luzzi I. & Carattoli A. 2004. Identification of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and analysis of the gyrA gene by the LightCycler mutation assay. Mol Cellular Prob, 18 (4), 255-261.

Duarte A., Santos A., Manageiro V., Martins A., Fraqueza M.J., Caniça M. & Oleastro M. 2014. Human, food and animal Campylobacter spp. isolated in Portugal: high genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance rates. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 44 (4), 306-313.

Elviss N.C., Williams L.K., Jorgensen F., Chisholm S.A., Lawson A.J. & Swift C. 2009. Amoxicillin therapy of poultry flocks: effect upon the selection of amoxicillin-resistant commensal Campylobacter spp. J Antimicrob Chemother, 64, 702-711.

Engvall E.O., Brändstrom B., Andersson L., Baverud V., Trowald-Wigh G. & Englund L. 2003. Isolation and identification of thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from Swedish dogs. Scand J Infect Dis, 35, 713-718.

European Food Safety Agency (EFSA). 2012. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2010. EFSA J, 10 (3), 2597.

European Food Safety Agency (EFSA). 2015. EU Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2013. EFSA J, 13 (2), 178.

European Commission (EU). 2015. Guidelines for the prudent use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine, Off J, C 299, 11.09.2015

Fox J.G., Hering A.M., Ackerman J.I. & Taylor N.S. 1983. The pet hamster as a potential reservoir of human Campylobacteriosis. J Infect Dis, 147, 784.

Gaudreau C., Boucher F., Gilbert H. & Bekal S. 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacterjejuniand Campylobactercoli isolates obtained in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 2002 to 2013. J Clin Microbiol, 52 (7), 2644-2646.

Ge B., Wang F., Sjölund-Karlsson M. & McDermott P.F. 2013. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends. J Microbiol Methods, 95, 57-67.

Gibreel A., Kos V.N., Keelan M., Trieber C.A., Levesque S., Michaud S. & Taylor D.E. 2005. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: molecular mechanism and stability of the resistance phenotype. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49 (7), 2753-2759.

Gibreel A. & Taylor D.E. 2006. Macrolide resistance in Campylobacterjejuni and Campylobactercoli. J Antimicrob Chemother, 58, 243-255.

Gibreel A., Tracz D.M., Nonaka L., Ngo T.M., Connell S.R. & Taylor D.E. 2004. Incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated in Alberta, Canada, from 1999 to 2002, with special reference to tet (O)-mediated tetracycline resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48 (9), 3442-3450.

Giacomelli M., Follador N., Coppola L.M., Martini M. & Piccirillo A. 2015. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy. Vet J, 204 (3), 333-337.

Goossens H., Henocque G., Kremp L., Rocque J., Boury R., Alanio G., Vlaes L., Hemelhof W., Van den Borre C. & Macart M. 1987. Nosocomial outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni meningitis in newborn infants. Lancet, 2, 8499, 146-149.

Griggs D.J., Peake L., Johnson M.M., Ghori S., Mott A. & Piddock L.J. 2009. β-lactamase-mediated β-lactam resistance in Campylobacter species: prevalence of Cj0299 (blaOXA-61) and evidence for a novel β-lactamase in C. jejuni. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 53, 3357-3364.

Grove-White D.H., Leatherbarrow A.J.H., Cripps P.J., Diggle P.J. & French N.P. 2010. Temporal and farm-management-associated variation in the faecal-pat prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in ruminants. Epidemiol Infect, 138, 549-558.

Guardabassi L., Schwarz S. & Lloyd D.H. 2004 Pet animals as reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother, 54, 321-332.

Guerrant R.L., Van Gilder T., Steiner T.S., Thielman N.M., Slutsker L., Tauxe R.V., Hennessy T., Griffin P.M., DuPont H., Sack R.B., Tarr P., Neill M., Nachamkin I., Reller L.B., Osterholm M.T., Bennish M.L. & Pickering L.K. 2001. Practice guidelines for the management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis, 32, 331-351.

Guest C.M., Stephen J.M. & Price C.J. 2007. Prevalence of Campylobacter and four endoparasites in dog populations associated with hearing dogs. J Small Animal Pract, 48, 632-637.

Hald B. & Madsen M. 1997. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacterupsaliensis. J Clin Microbiol, 35 (12), 3351-3352.

Hamad B. 2010. The antibiotics market. Nat Rev Drug Discov, 9, 675-676.

Harms J.M., Bartels H., Schlünzen F. & Yonath A. 2003. Antibiotics acting on the translational machinery. J Cell Science, 116 (8), 1391-1393.

Harvey S. & Greenwood J.R. 1985. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus from a pet turtle. J Clin Microbiol, 21, 260-261.

Holmberg M., Rosendal T., Engvall E.O., Ohlson A. & Lindberg A. 2015. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacterspecies in Swedish dogs and characterization of C. jejuni isolates. Acta Vet Scand, 57, 19.

Huddleston J.R. 2014. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Infect Drug Resist, 7, 167-176.

Iovine N.M. 2013. Resistance mechanisms in Campylobacterjejuni. Virulence, 4, 1-11.

Kahlmeter G. & Poulsen H.O. 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections in Europe: the ECO·SENS study revisited. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 39 (1), 45-51.

Karenlampi R., Rautelin H., Schonberg-Norio D., Paulin L. & Hanninen M.L. 2007. Longitudinal study of Finnish Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates from humans, using multilocus sequence typing, including comparison with epidemiological data and isolates from poultry and cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol, 73, 148-155.

Keithlin J., Sargeant J., Thomas M.K. & Fazil A. 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of Campylobacter cases that develop chronic sequelae. BMC Public Health, 14 (1), 1203.

Koene M.G.J., Houwers D.J., Dijkstra J.R., Duim B. & Wagenaar J.A. 2004. Simultaneous presence of multiple Campylobacter species in dogs. J Clin Microbiol, 42 (2), 819-821.

Kurnar R., Verma A.K., Kurnar A., Srivastava M. & Lal H.P. 2012. Prevalence and antibiogram of Campylobacterinfections in dogs of Mathura, India. Asian J Animal Vet Adv, 7 (5), 434-440.

Lapierre L., Gatica M.D.L.A., Riquelme V., Vergara C., Yañez J.M., San Martín B. & Flores R. 2016. Characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility and its association with virulence genes related to adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from animals, meat, and humans. Microb Drug Resist, 22 (5), 432-444.

Lee M.K., Billington S.J. & Joens L.A. 2004. Potential virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacterjejuniisolates from food and companion animals. Foodborne Path Dis, 1 (4), 223-230.

Lengerh A., Moges F., Unakal C. & Anagaw B. 2013. Prevalence, associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter species among under five diarrheic children at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Pediatrics, 13 (1), 1-13.

Leonard E.K., Pearl D.L., Janecko N., Weese J.S., Reid-Smith R.J., Peregrine A.S. & Finley R.L. 2011. Factors related to Campylobacter spp. carriage in client-owned dogs visiting veterinary clinics in a region of Ontario, Canada. Epidem Infect, 139 (10), 1531-1541.

Lehtopolku M., Kotilainen P., Haanperä-Heikkinen M., Nakari U.M., Hänninen M.L., Huovinen P. & Hakanen A.J. 2011. Ribosomal mutations as the main cause of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter

jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 55 (12), 5939-5941.

Liao C.H., Chuang C.Y., Huang Y.T., Lee P.I. & Hsueh P.R. 2012. Bacteremia caused by antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter species at a medical center in Taiwan, 1998-2008. J Infect, 65(5), 392-399.

Lin J., Michel L.O. & Zhang Q. 2002. CmeABC functions as a multidrug efflux system in Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 2124-2131.

Llano-Sotelo B., Azucen E.F., Kotr L.P., Mobasher S. & Chow C.S. 2002. Aminoglycosides modified by resistance enzymes display diminished binding to the bacterial ribosomal aminoacyl-tRNA site. Chemistry & Biology, 9 (4), 455-463.

López C.M., Giacoboni G., Agostini A., Cornero F.J., Tellechea D.M. & Trinidad J.J. 2002. Thermotolerant Campylobacters in domestic animals in a defined population in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Prev Vet Med, 55 (3), 193-200.

Luangtongkum T., Jeon B., Han J., Plummer P., Logue C.M. & Zhang Q. 2009. Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter: emergence, transmission and persistence. Future Microbiol, 4 (2), 189-200.

Luo N., Sahin O., Lin J., Michel L.O. & Zhang Q. 2003. In vivo selection of Campylobacter isolates with high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance associated with gyrA mutations and the function of the CmeABC efflux pump. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother, 47 (1), 390-394.

Manfredi R., Nanetti A., Ferri M. & Chiodo F. 1999. Fatal Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia in patients with AIDS. J Med Microbiol, 48 (6),601-603.

Marks S.L., Rankin S.C., Byrne B.A. & Weese J.S. 2011. Enteropathogenic bacteria in dogs and cats: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and control. J Vet Internal Med, 25 (6), 1195-1208.

Mingeot-Leclercq M.P., Glupczynski Y. & Tulkens P.M. 1999. Aminoglycosides: activity and resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43 (4), 727-737.

Mohan V. 2015. Faeco-prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in urban wild birds and pets in New Zealand. BMC Research Notes, 8, 1-5.

Moore J.E., Wilson T.S., Wareing D.R., Humphrey T.J. & Murphy P.G. 2002. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in ready-to-eat foods and raw poultry in Northern Ireland. J Food Prot, 65, 1326-1328.

Nachamkin I., Szymanski C.M. & Blaser M.J. 2008. Campylobacter, 3 Ed., ASM Press.Nicholson F.A., Groves S.J. & Chambers B.J. 2005. Pathogen survival during livestock manure storage and following land application. Bioresource Technology, 96 (2), 135-145.

Olkkola S., Nykäsenoja S., Raulo S., Llarena A.K., Kovanen S., Kivistö R. & Hänninen M.L. 2016. Antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence types of finnish Campylobacterjejuni isolates from multiple sources. Zoonoses Public Health, 63 (1), 10-19.

Olkkola S., Kovanen S., Roine J., Hänninen M.L., Hielm-Björkman A. & Kivistö R. 2015. Population genetics and antimicrobial susceptibility of canine Campylobacter isolates collected before and after a raw feeding experiment. PloS one, 10 (7), e0132660.

Okada H., Kitazawa T., Harada S., Itoyama S., Hatakeyama S., Ota Y. & Koike K. 2008. Combined treatment with oral kanamycin and parenteral antibiotics for a case of persistent bacteremia and intestinal carriage with Campylobactercoli. Intern Med, 47, 1363-1366.

Ozbey G. & Tasdemi B. 2014. Seasonality and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter in Turkish chicken meat. Vet Ital, 50 (4), 277-283.

Pacanowski J., Lalande V., Lacombe K., Boudraa C., Lesprit P., Legrand P., Trystram, D., Kassis N., Arlet G., Mainardi J.L., Doucet-Populaire F., Girard P.M. & Meynard J.L. 2008. Campylobacter bacteremia: clinical features and factors associated with fatal outcome. Clin Infect Dis, 47, 790-796.

Parsons B.N., Porter C.J., Ryvar R., Stavisky J., Williams N.J., Pinchbeck G.L. & Dawson S. 2010. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in a cross-sectional study of dogs attending veterinary practices in the UK and risk indicators associated with shedding. Vet J, 184 (1), 66-70.

Payot S., Bolla J.-M., Corcoran D., Fanning S., Mégraud F. & Zhang Q. 2006. Mechanisms of fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter spp. Microbes Infection, 8 (7) 1967-1971.

Pezzotti G., Serafin A., Luzzi I., Mioni R., Milan M. & Perin R. 2003. Occurrence and resistance to antibiotics of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in animals and meat in northeastern Italy. Int J Food Microbiol, 82 (3), 281-287.

Pumbwe L., Randall L.P., Woodward M.J. & Piddock L.J.V. 2004. Expression of the efflux pump genes cmeBcmeFand the porin gene porA in multiple‐antibiotic‐resistant Campylobacter jejuni. J Antimicrob Chemother, 54, 341-347.

Rabinowitz P.M., Odofin L. & Dein F.J. 2008. From ‘us vs them’ to ‘shared risk’: can animals help link environmental factors to human health? EcoHealth, 5, 224 229.

Reller L.B., Weinstein M., Jorgensen J.H. & Ferraro M.J. 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices. Clin Infect Dis, 49 (11), 1749-1755.

Riley A., Eshaghi A., Olsha R., Allen V.G. & Patel S.N. 2015. Antibiotic susceptibility of clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Ontario, Canada during 2011-2013. Diagnost Microbiol Infect Dis, 83 (3), 292-294.

Rossi M., Hänninen M.L., Revez J., Hannula M. & Zanoni R.G. 2008. Occurrence and species level diagnostics of Campylobacter spp., enteric Helicobacter spp. and Anaerobiospirillum spp. in healthy and diarrheic dogs and cats. Vet Microbiol, 129, 304-314.

Rutland B.E., Weese J.S., Bolin C., Au J. & Malani A.N. 2009. Human-to-dog transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis, 15 (8), 1328.

Sahin O., Burrough E.R., Pavlovic N., Frana T.S., Madson D.M. & Zhang Q. 2014. Campylobacterjejuni as a cause of canine abortions in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest, 26 (5), 699-704.

Salihu M.D., Magaji A.A., Abdulkadir J.U. & Kolawale A. 2010. Survey of thermophilic Campylobacter species in cats and dogs in north-western Nigeria. Vet Ital, 46 (4), 425-430.

Sandberg M., Bergsjø B., Hofshagen M., Skjerve E. & Kruse H. 2002. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Norwegian cats and dogs. Prev Vet Med, 55 (4), 241-253.

Siemer B.L., Harrington C.S., Nielsen E.M., Borck B., Nielsen N.L., Engberg J. & On S.L. 2004. Genetic relatedness among Campylobacter jejuni serotyped isolates of diverse origin as determined by numerical analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles. J Appl Microbiol, 96, 795-802.

Skirrow M.B. 1991. Epidemiology of Campylobacterenteritis. Int J Food Microbiol, 12, 9-16.

Soares G.M.S., Figueiredo L.C., Faveri M., Cortelli S.C., Duarte P.M. & Feres M. 2012. Mechanisms of action of systemic antibiotics used in periodontal treatment and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs. J Appl Oral Science, 20 (3), 295-309.

Stockdale A.J., Beeching N.J., Anson J. & Beadsworth M.B. 2016. Emergence of extensive fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter gastroenteritis in Liverpool, UK. J Infect, 72 (3), 398-400.

Schwabe C.W. 1964. Veterinary medicine and human health. The Williams & Wilkins Company.

Tam C.C., O'Brien S.J., Adak G.K., Meakins S.M. & Frost J.A. 2003. Campylobactercoli - an important foodborne pathogen. J Infect, 47, 28-32.

Taylor D.E. & Tracz D.M. 2005. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter. InCampylobactermolecular and cell biology. Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, 193-204.

Tenkate T.D. & Stafford R.J. 2001. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in infants and young children: a matched case-control study. Epidemiol Infect, 127 (3), 399-404.

Thompson C.N., Phan M.V., Hoang N.V.M., Van Minh P., Vinh N.T., Thuy C.T. & Phat V.V. 2015. A prospective multi-center observational study of children hospitalized with diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 92 (5), 1045-1052.

Tsai H.J., Huang H.C., Lin C.M., Lien Y.Y. & Chou C.H. 2007. Salmonellae and campylobacters in household and stray dogs in northern Taiwan. Vet Res Comm, 31 (8), 931-939.

Ullman U. & Kischkel S. 1981. Survival of Campylobacter species. Infection, 9, 210.

Vacher S., Menard A., Bernard E., Santos A. & Megraud F. 2005. Detection of mutations associated with macrolide resistance in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. by real-time PCR. Microb Drug Resist, 11, 40-47.

Westgarth C., Porter C.J., Nicolson L., Birtles R.J., Williams N.J., Har C.A. & Dawson S. 2009. Risk factors for the carriage of Campylobacterupsaliensis by dogs in a community in Cheshire. Vet Rec, 165 (18), 526-530.

Wieczorek K. & Osek J. 2013. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter. BioMed Res Int, ID 340605.

Wieland B., Regula G., Danuser J., Wittwer M., Burnens A.P., Wassenaar T.M. & Stark K.D. 2005. Campylobacterspp. in dogs and cats in Switzerland: risk factor analysis and molecular characterization with AFLP. J Vet Med B, 52 (4), 183-189.

Workman S.N., Mathison G.E. & Lavoie M.C. 2005. Pet dogs and chicken meat as reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. in Barbados. J Clin Microbiol, 43, 2642-2650.

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). 2012. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (Mammals, Birds and Bees). 7th Edition, OIE, Paris.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2004. Proceedings of the Joint FAO/OIE/WHO expert workshop on non-human antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance: Scientific assessment. Document WHO/CDS/DIP/ZFK/04.20. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Zhang Q. & Plummer P. 2008. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter. In Campylobacter(Nachamkin I., Szymanski C.M. & Blaser M.J., eds). ASM Press, Washington DC, USA, 263-276.

Zeng X., Gillespie B. & Lin J. 2015. Important role of a putative lytic transglycosylase Cj0843c in β-lactam resistance in Campylobacterjejuni. Frontiers Microbiol, 6, 1292.

Zinsstag J., Schelling E., Waltner-Toews D. & Tanner M. 2011. From “one medicine” to “one health” and systemic approaches to health and well-being. Prev Vet Med, 101 (3), 148-156.

Zhou J., Zhang M., Yang W., Fang Y., Wang G. & Hou F. 2016. A seventeen-year observation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Campylobacter jejuni and the molecular mechanisms of erythromycin-resistant isolates in Beijing, China. Int J Infect Dis, 42, 28-33.