Veterinaria Italiana 2023-05-23T16:43:03+02:00 Laura Ambrogi Open Journal Systems <p>A quarterly peer-reviewed journal devoted to veterinary public health and other aspects of veterinary science and medicine, Veterinaria Italiana is published by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (Istituto G. Caporale) in Teramo, Italy.</p> Cephalosporin susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from commercial rabbit and goats farms in Spain 2021-09-09T12:28:44+02:00 Elena Badillo Elisa Escudero Juan Sebastián Galecio Verónica Hernandis Pedro Marin <p>Antimicrobial drug resistance is an important problem that challenges veterinary clinicians to provide effective treatments without further spreading resistance to other animals and people. The most commonly used pharmacodynamic parameter to define potency of antimicrobial drugs is minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of thirty-six strains of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolated from dairy goats with mastitis and rabbits with chronic staphylococcosis. Four cephalosporins were tested: cephalexin, cephalotin, cefonicid and ceftiofur. MIC tests were performed according to the microdilution broth method. The calculated values of sensitivity in goats and rabbits were 66.67% and 72.22% for cephalexin, 72.22 % and 94.44% for cefonicid, 77.78% and 94.44% for cephalotin and 77.78% and 100% for ceftiofur, respectively. For all antibiotics, MIC<sub>90</sub> of <em>S. aureus</em> from rabbits were lower than MIC<sub>90</sub> from goats. These data suggest that more antibiotics are used in goat milk production than in rabbit farming. According to MIC values obtained in this study, ceftiofur and cephalotin may be the best option for treating <em>S. aureus</em> infections in lactating goats. For rabbits, ceftiofur showed lowest MIC values, therefore, it could be an alternative to treatment the infections caused by <em>S. aureus</em> in this species.&nbsp;</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Elena Badillo, Elisa Escudero, Juan Sebastián Galecio, Verónica Hernandis, Pedro Marin Evidence of West Nile virus in chickens and horses in Nigeria: results from a serosurvey 2021-11-15T09:48:22+01:00 Rukaiya Musa-Gobe Gabriel Omeiza Wesley Nafarnda Andrew Adamu <p>West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus which affects humans and horses. A cross sectional study was carried out on 106 local horses in Kaduna and 78 domestic chickens in Federal Capital Territory. A total of 184 sera were screened for West Nile virus anti Pr‑E antibodies using ID Screen® West Nile competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. For the horses, an overall prevalence of 92.45% was recorded while domestic chickens had a preponderance of 7.69%. From our study, there was a statistical significant difference between the occurrences of WNV in stallions than mares with p &lt; 0.05. Comparing the occurrence of West Nile virus between species, horses were more likely to be infected by West Nile virus than domestic chickens (OR 147). This is the first seroprevalence study investigating West Nile virus infection in domestic chickens in Nigeria. The presence of the antibodies indicates the widespread circulation and the potential risk of infection in humans and animals. In order to understand the epidemiology of West Nile virus infection in Nigeria, there is need for surveillance to be implemented in human and animal sectors.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rukaiya Musa-Gobe, Gabriel Omeiza, Wesley Nafarnda, Andrew Adamu Seroprevalence of Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in India: A 5-year study 2021-11-15T09:59:06+01:00 Sharanagouda S. Patil Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa Suresh Akshatha Velankar C. Shivaranjini Divakar Hemadri Jagadish Hiremath Siju Susan Jacob <p>Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a highly contagious disease of bovines causing respiratory symptoms, abortions, and reduced milk yield, leading to huge economic losses. Reports on seroprevalence in bovines in India are available and restricted to districts/states. In the present study, a nationwide seroprevalence of IBR in bovines was conducted to provide a national IBR seroprevalence to the Chief Veterinarian who in turn can design the control strategies. A total of 15,592 cattle and buffalo serum samples from 25 states and 3 Union Territories viz., Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands were tested for IBR antibodies using Avidin‑Biotin (AB) ELISA. Cumulative seropositivity was found to be 31.37%. Maharashtra and Rajasthan states, part of the west zone of the country, showed the highest and lowest seroprevalence, respectively. A total of 11,423 cattle and 4,169 buffalo serum samples were tested, which showed 33.91% and 24.39% seropositivity, respectively. India has the highest buffalo population. Presently, India no IBR vaccination programs are implemented in India. Considering the high seroprevalence, the authorities should plan control strategies for vaccinating dairy cows and buffaloes in India.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sharanagouda S. Patil, Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa Suresh, Akshatha Velankar, C. Shivaranjini, Divakar Hemadri, Jagadish Hiremath , Siju Susan Jacob Hematological and serum biochemical profiles of a natural African swine fever virus infection in pigs 2021-07-30T11:18:13+02:00 Simeon Chibuko Okafor Uju Catherine Okafor Donatus Lotanna Obinwogu John Ikechukwu Ihedioha <p>African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages, inducing hemorrhagic fever with high mortality and severe threat to pig production. This study investigated the hematological and serum biochemical abnormalities associated with a natural ASF infection in pigs. A total of 100 serum samples of pigs from piggery suspected of ASFV infection were screened for antibodies by ELISA. Thirty‑two blood samples from serologically positive pigs and 32 negative pigs were undergo to hematological and serum biochemical analyses following standard procedures. The results showed that the mean values of the red blood cell (RBC) count, total white blood cell (TWBC) count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute monocyte count, serum total protein (TP) and globulin were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) lower while the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), absolute neutrophil count and serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher in the infected than the healthy pigs. There were no significant differences (p &gt; 0.05) in the mean values of the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, absolute eosinophil count, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities between the infected and healthy pigs. Hence, natural ASFV infection may have caused alterations in the hematological and serum biochemical parameters in the infected pigs. The generated data could complement the existing laboratory diagnostic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, direct fluorescence antibody test, indirect fluorescent antibody test and ELISA in the diagnosis of ASF in pigs.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Simeon Chibuko Okafor, Uju Catherine Okafor, Donatus Lotanna Obinwogu, John Ikechukwu Ihedioha Seroprevalence of Bovine ephemeral fever virus in Gujarat State of India 2021-11-16T06:09:03+01:00 Sushil Kumar Mohapatra Bharat Singh Chandel Mehulkumar Dharmabhai Shrimali Husen R Parsani Sandipkumar Sureshbhai Patel Harsad C Chauhan Kishan Kumar Sharma Arunkumar Chaturbhai Patel <p>Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) is an arthropod borne virus that causes bovine ephemeral fever or three‑day sickness in cattle and buffaloes. This is the first report on seroprevalence of BEF in cattle and buffaloes in Gujarat, India. Total of 92 animals, 78 cattle and 14 buffaloes from three regions (districts) of Gujarat state of India, were screened for the presence of anti‑BEF antibodies. A total of 27 out of 92 animals were found positive and overall seroprevalence detected was 29.34% (95% CI 20.0‑38.6%). A total of 19 out of 78 cattle and 8 out of 14 buffalo’s samples were found positive BEFV antibodies. Species‑wise seroprevalence in cattle and buffaloes was 24.35% (95% CI 14.8‑33.8%) and 57.1% (95% CI 31.2‑83.0%), respectively. There was a statistically significant (p &lt; 0.05) species effect based on the seroprevalence. In cattle, location‑wise seroprevalence was observed to be 26.82% (95% CI 13.2‑40.3%) and 21.62% (95% CI 8.3‑34.8%) in Navsari and Banaskantha districts, respectively. The effect of location is not statistically significant (p &lt; 0.05). Cytopathic effect of Vero cells was characterized by rounding, granulation of the cytoplasm within 48‑72 hrs of post infection. This was the first report demonstrating the presence of BEFV in Gujarat state.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sushil Kumar Mohapatra, Bharat Singh Chandel, Mehulkumar Dharmabhai Shrimali, Husen R Parsani, Sandipkumar Sureshbhai Patel, Harsad C Chauhan, Kishan Kumar Sharma, Arunkumar Chaturbhai Patel Identification of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides from slaughtered cattle in two transboundary states of North‑eastern Nigeria 2021-08-23T10:07:33+02:00 Markus Francis Mashood Abiola Raji Clara Nna Kwanashie Jibril Adamu Lushaikyaa Allam James Agbo Ameh Godwin Onyemaechi Egwu Katiuscia Zilli Flavio Sacchini Massimo Scacchia <p>This study aimed to perform molecular typing of <em>Mycoplasma mycoides</em> subsp. <em>mycoides</em> from slaughtered cattle in Adamawa and Taraba States, north‑eastern Nigeria. A total of four hundred and eighty (480) samples of lung tissues, nasal swabs, ear swabs and pleural fluids were collected from cattle at slaughter and processed according to standard laboratory protocols. Identification and confirmation were achieved with specific PCR and PCR‑RFLP. An overall <em>M. mycoides</em> subsp. <em>mycoides</em> isolation rate of 6.87% (33/480) was obtained. In Adamawa State, 12 (10.91%) isolates of <em>M. mycoides</em> subsp. <em>mycoides</em> came from both, lung tissues and pleural fluids. While in Taraba State, 5 (7.14%) and 4 (5.71%) isolates of <em>M. mycoides</em> subsp. <em>mycoides</em> came from lung tissues and pleural fluids, respectively. The samples from nasal and ear swabs from the study states were negative for <em>M. mycoides</em> subsp. <em>mycoides</em>. Thirty‑three out of the 37 culture positive isolates were confirmed to be <em>Mycoplasma mycoides</em> subspecies <em>mycoides</em> with the production of a band equivalent to 574‑bp. Molecular typing with restriction endonuclease Vsp1 results in the two bands of 180‑bp and 380‑bp. In conclusion, the study has established an isolation rate of 6.87% for<em> M. mycoides</em> subsp. <em>mycoides</em>. Measures to strengthen movement control in order to minimise the spread of this dreaded disease of cattle were recommended.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Markus Francis, Mashood Abiola Raji, Clara Nna Kwanashie, Jibril Adamu, Lushaikyaa Allam, James Agbo Ameh, Godwin Onyemaechi Egwu, Katiuscia Zilli, Flavio Sacchini, Massimo Scacchia Simulated African Swine Fever (ASF) virus detection in Italy: average numbers of farms and pigs under restriction 2021-12-02T16:44:25+01:00 Giorgia Baiocchi Andrea Marcon Olivia Bessi Luigi Ruocco Vittorio Guberti <p>African swine fever is a devastating contagious viral disease of kept and wild porcine animals that will challenge the Veterinary Services involved in its eradication. Nowadays, ASF represents one of the biggest challenges for the pig sector at a global level. Following a number of simulated virus random introductions, the paper estimates the average number of farms (including their type) and animals that will be under restriction, and finally the average distance of infected farms from the nearest rendering plant. The study includes data referring to 101,032 farms with 9,322,819 pigs which are available in the Italian National Database (BDN). The simulations consider 5 different biogeographic regions with their own domestic pig distribution, breeding systems, and wild boar presence. Following an index case in a farm, and in the worst‑case scenario, in the 10 km radius of the restriction area, there will be: 2,636 farms in South Italy; 470,216 animals in Po Valley; 147 km in Central Italy is the longest mean distance from the infected farm to the nearest rendering plant.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Giorgia Baiocchi, Andrea Marcon, Olivia Bessi, Luigi Ruocco, Vittorio Guberti Renal resistive index in obese and non‑obese cats 2021-08-03T12:26:57+02:00 Fúlvia Bueno de Souza Natália Volpi Gonçalves Shayra Peruch Bonatelli Alexandra Frey Belotta Silvano Salgueiro Geraldes Maria Jaqueline Mamprim Priscylla Tatiana Chalfun Guimaraes-Okamoto Maria Lúcia Gomes Lourenço Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Ramos Sheila Canevese Rahal Alessandra Melchert <p><span id="page869R_mcid51" class="markedContent"></span>This study aimed to compare renal function between obese and normal‑weight healthy cats, using intrarenal resistive index (RI), serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and serum creatinine, and to identify the variables that might influence intrarenal RI. Thirty crossbred client‑owned cats met the inclusion criteria and were allocated into two groups: Control and Obese. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), body condition score (BCS), SAP, serum SDMA, urea, and creatinine were evaluated. B‑mode and Doppler ultrasound of the kidneys were done. RI evaluation was in the interlobar artery. SDMA and intrarenal RI were compared between groups, also considering the gender of the cats. A correlation analysis between intrarenal RI with the other parameters was performed. SDMA was higher in the Obese group. Intrarenal RI was higher in females than males in the Obese group. Obese females presented higher RI and SDMA than Control females. A positive correlation was observed between RI, age, body weight, and BMI. Six obese cats (40%) showed increased RI. The increase in body weight, BCS, and BMI resulted in a simultaneous increase in RI and SDMA. The RI may assist in monitoring renal function, and may be associated with preclinical kidney changes in obese cats.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fúlvia Bueno de Souza, Natália Volpi Gonçalves, Shayra Peruch Bonatelli, Alexandra Frey Belotta, Silvano Salgueiro Geraldes, Maria Jaqueline Mamprim, Priscylla Tatiana Chalfun Guimaraes-Okamoto, Maria Lúcia Gomes Lourenço, Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Ramos, Sheila Canevese Rahal, Alessandra Melchert Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from fecal samples of diarrheic camels in Tunisia 2022-03-07T15:17:19+01:00 Ghassan Tayh Asma Ben Haj Yahia Rachid Selmi Sarrah Landolsi Faten Ben Chehida Aymen Mamlouk Mohamed Habib Jemli Monia Dâaloul-Jedidi Lilia Messadi <p>Shiga‑toxin‑producing <em>E. coli</em> (STEC) is a foodborne pathogen associated with outbreaks worldwide that can be identified in the feces and in the meat of food‑producing animals. Our study aimed to evaluate the incidence of <em>E. coli</em> O157:H7 in the feces of diarrheic camels (<em>Camelus dromedarius</em>) in Tunisia. From January 2018 to April 2019, 120 unduplicated fecal samples were obtained from diarrheic camels located in southern Tunisia. Non‑sorbitol‑fermenting colonies were confirmed as <em>E. coli</em> O157 via latex agglutination test and were screened for the presence of <em>rfbEO157</em>, <em>fliCH7</em>, <em>stx1</em>, <em>stx2</em>, <em>eaeA</em>, and <em>ehxA</em> genes by PCR. All isolates were examined for their susceptibility to 21 antibiotics. Of the 70 <em>E. coli</em> isolates that were recovered from 120 diarrheic camels, 4 (5.7%) were identified as STEC O157:H7. All isolates harbored ehxA and eae genes. Shiga toxin genes <em>stx2</em> and <em>stx1</em> were present in 50% and 25% of isolates, respectively. All <em>E. coli</em> O157:H7 isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, cefepime, aztreonam, colistin, and sulfamethoxazole‑trimethoprim. All isolates belonged to the phylogroup E. This is the first report of <em>E. coli</em> O157:H7 isolates from diarrheic camels in Tunisia with a prevalence of 4 isolates (3.3%) amongst 120 fecal samples. This study supports the necessity for a platform purposed for regular screening and surveillance programs in food‑producing animals and meat products, to perform early and rapid identification of food‑borne pathogens.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ghassan Tayh, Asma Ben Haj Yahia , Rachid Selmi, Sarrah Landolsi , Faten Ben Chehida , Aymen Mamlouk, Mohamed Habib Jemli, Monia Dâaloul-Jedidi, Lilia Messadi Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine in xylazine‑sedated horses 2022-03-01T11:59:08+01:00 Amal Hammad Shaaban Gadallah Tarek Misk Ahmed Sharshar Nahed Thabet Ahmed Mourad <p>This study describes the selected pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine (NAL) in xylazine (XYL)‑sedated horses. Five adult healthy horses were randomly received 2 treatments at a 1‑week interval; XYL treatment (0.55 mg/kg IV) and XYL/NAL treatment (XYL, 0.55 mg/kg IV; NAL, 0.3 mg/kg IV). The measured pharmacodynamic variables were sedative and analgesic effects and the effect on ataxia and some physiological parameters. for the pharmacokinetics of NAL, its plasma concentrations were measured using HPLC and a 2‑compartment analysis was performed. Greater and prolonged sedation was evident after XYL/NAL treatment compared with XYL treatment. Slightly improved and prolonged analgesia was demonstrated after XYL/NAL treatment. Significant changes in blood pressure and respiratory rate lasted for a shorter duration with XYL/NAL treatment than with XYL treatment. After XYL treatment, rectal temperature was significantly different from baseline and XYL/NAL treatment. Elimination half‑life of NAL was 3.47 ± 1.39 hours and total body clearance was 2.88 ± 0.73 L/kg/hour. In conclusion, addition of NAL to XYL resulted in remarkable advantages on the measured parameters. The obtained pharmacokinetics of NAL could be useful in determining the effective NAL infusion rate, which could be further evaluated as an adjunctive agent to XYL for prolonged sedation in horses.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Amal Hammad, Shaaban Gadallah, Tarek Misk, Ahmed Sharshar, Nahed Thabet, Ahmed Mourad Disseminated aspergillosis in a German shepherd mixed breed dog with unusual initial localization to the iliac wing 2021-08-03T10:54:33+02:00 Sara Del Magno Marta Gruarin Armando Foglia Veronica Cola Chiara Agnoli Roberta Galuppi Francesco Dondi Luciano Pisoni <p>A female, 1.5 years old, mixed‑breed dog, was presented for left hind limb lameness. Radiographs revealed an irregular periosteal proliferation on the left iliac wing. The clinical condition worsened with generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes, azotaemia, and pyelonephritis. The magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis and a surgical biopsy diagnosed a mycotic myositis and osteomyelitis of the iliac wing and gluteal muscles. <em>Aspergillus terreus</em> was isolated from culture of urine and lymph nodes aspirates. The antifungal susceptibility test showed moderate sensitivity to Itraconazole. After one month of therapy with itraconazole, the dog presented discospondylitis of L1‑L2 and partial ureteral obstruction due to mycotic bezoar that was resolved with medical treatment and itraconazole dose elevation. After twelve months, itraconazole was suspended; a severe osteomyelitis of the left femur developed, and the dog was euthanised. The necropsy confirmed the presence of mycotic osteomyelitis of the iliac wing and femur, discospondylitis, lymphadenitis and severe granulomatous pyelonephritis. Systemic aspergillosis has rarely been reported in the literature, especially in Italy. The pelvic bone involvement is rare both in dogs and humans. Although itraconazole treatment allowed remission of the clinical signs for one year, it was not able to cure the dog.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sara Del Magno, Marta Gruarin, Armando Foglia, Veronica Cola, Chiara Agnoli, Roberta Galuppi, Francesco Dondi, Luciano Pisoni Treatment of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in dogs with furazolidone and β-cyclodextrin: case report. 2021-08-04T09:27:10+02:00 Marcos Santos Zanini Larissa Ataíde Siqueira Yuri Vieira Almeida Laisa Savergnini Poleze Dante Gnecco Zanini Roberto Ramos Sobreira Ana Paula Madureira <p>Euthanasia of animals is not accepted as a control for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by <em>Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis</em> and drugs used in humans for the treatment of leishmaniasis are not allowed for animals in Brazil. Miltefosine was authorized for dogs infected by <em>Leishmania infantum</em> with variable results for <em>L. braziliensis</em>. Thus, nine dogs infected with <em>Leishmania (V.) braziliensis</em> were treated by a combination of furazolidone and β-cyclodextrin. The nine dogs were mongrels, weighing between 4-17 kg and 3-10 years old. These dogs had ulcerous lesions in different regions such as scrotal tissue, auricular pavilion and nostrils. Serological, molecular and protozoal culture techniques were used for laboratory diagnosis. The treatment used furazolidone + β-cyclodextrin complex (1: 2) at a concentration of 60 mg/mL given orally at a dose of 15 mg/kg every 12 hours. The re-epithelialization of lesions occurred between 35 and 41 days of treatment. During fourteen months the animals were monitored and there was no reactivation of lesions or growth of the protozoan in a culture medium of the biopsies. This study demonstrated that treatment with FZD and CD is effective in reducing the cutaneous lesions caused by <em>L. braziliensis</em> in dogs.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Marcos Santos Zanini, Larissa Ataíde Siqueira, Yuri Vieira Almeida, Laisa Savergnini Poleze, Dante Gnecco Zanini , Roberto Ramos Sobreira, Ana Paula Madureira