Veterinaria Italiana https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt <p>A quarterly peer-reviewed journal devoted to veterinary public health and other aspects of veterinary science and medicine, Veterinaria Italiana is published by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (Istituto G. Caporale) in Teramo, Italy.</p> Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise G. Caporale en-US Veterinaria Italiana 0505-401X English Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Rarely Isolated Salmonella Serotypes from Poultry in Turkey https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/3004 <p>This study investigated five strains of each serotype of <em>Salmonella</em> Agona, <em>Salmonella</em> Heidelberg, <em>Salmonella</em> Hindmarsh, <em>Salmonella</em> Kouka, <em>Salmonella</em> Muenchen, <em>Salmonella</em> Ottmarchen, <em>Salmonella</em> Saintpaul and <em>Salmonella</em> II, isolated during the 2014-2017 period. Disc diffusion was used to identify the phenotypic profiles of antibiotic resistance to 12 antimicrobials while the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was detected by PCR. The most sensitive serotype was <em>S.</em> Kouka while the most resistant serotypes were <em>S.</em> Agona and <em>S</em>. Heidelberg. MDR was detected most frequently in <em>S</em>. Agona strains, followed by <em>S</em>. Saintpaul, <em>S.</em> Hindmarsch, and <em>S.</em> Ottmarchen. The samples were most susceptible to chloramphenicol and ceftazidime and most resistant to sulfonamide. The resistance genes were detected in phenotypically resistant strains. Among the tetracycline-resistant strains, <em>tet (A) </em>was the most prevalent gene. The results of this study highlight the importance of monitoring antibiotic resistance profiles and related genes, which can spread to form MDR bacteria. <em>Salmonella</em> spp., which significantly contribute to ARG dissemination, should be monitored constantly to protect the closely related health of humans, animals, and the environment. The level of antibiotic resistance observed in this study, even in rarely isolated <em>Salmonella</em> serotypes, also indicates the need for careful and selective use of antibiotics.</p> Hamit Kaan Müştak Seyyide Sarıçam İnce İnci Başak Müştak Copyright (c) 2024 Hamit Kaan Müştak, Seyyide Sarıçam İnce, İnci Başak Müştak http://127.0.0.1/foo.html 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 59 4 10.12834/VetIt.3004.20698.2 Experimental infection of cattle, sheep, and goats with the newly emerged epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 8 https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/3433 <p>Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 8 (EHDV-8) emerged in Europe for the first time in late 2022. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of EHDV-8 infection in cattle, sheep, and goats. &nbsp;Following experimental infection with EHDV-8, four out of five calves displayed fever, while another calf exhibited ulcerative and crusty lesions of the muzzle. RNAemia peaked at day 7 post infection in all calves and remained relatively stable till the end of the study, at 78 days post infection. Infectious virus was isolated up to 21 days post infection in one calf. As far as small ruminants are concerned, one sheep experienced fever and two out of five had consistent RNAemia that lasted until the end of the study. Remarkably, infectious virus was evidenced at day 7 post infection in one sheep. In goats, no RNA was observed. All infected animals seroconverted, and a neutralizing immune response was observed in all species, with calves exhibiting a more robust response than sheep and goats.</p> <p>Our study provides insights into the kinetics of EHDV-8 infection and the host immune responses. We also highlight that sheep may also play a role in EHDV-8 epidemiology. Altogether, the data gathered in this study could have important implications for disease control and prevention strategies, providing crucial information to policy makers to mitigate the impact of this viral disease on livestock.</p> Massimo Spedicato Francesca Profeta Sarah Thabet Liana Teodori Alessandra Leone Ottavio Portanti Maura Pisciella Barbara Bonfini Simone Pulsoni Francesca Rosso Emanuela Rossi Paola Ripà Angela De Rosa Eugenia Ciarrocchi Roberta Irelli Antonio Cocco Corinne Sailleu Nicola Ferri Tiziana Di Febo Damien Vitour Emmanuel Breard Daniele Giansante Soufien Sghaier Thameur Ben Hassine Stephan Zientara Romolo Salini Salah Hammami Giovanni Savini Alessio Lorusso Copyright (c) 2020 Massimo Spedicato, Francesca Profeta, Sarah Thabet, Liana Teodori, Alessandra Leone, Ottavio Portanti, Maura Pisciella, Barbara Bonfini, Simone Pulsoni, Francesca Rosso, Emanuela Rossi, Paola Ripà, Angela De Rosa, Eugenia Ciarrocchi, Roberta Irelli, Antonio Cocco, Corinne Sailleu, Nicola Ferri, Tiziana Di Febo, Damien Vitour, Emmanuel Breard, Daniele Giansante, Soufien Sghaier, Thameur Ben Hassine, Stephan Zientara, Romolo Salini, Salah Hammami, Giovanni Savini, Alessio Lorusso http://127.0.0.1/foo.html 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 59 4 10.12834/VetIt.3433.23112.1 Evaluating the Efficiency of Various Treatment Methods in Cattle Cutaneous Papillomatosis https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/3138 <p>In this study, we compared the effectiveness of various methods used in the treatment of cattle with cutaneous papillomatosis. Ivermectin, <em>Tarantula cubensis</em> extract, levamisole, autovaccine, and a combination of <em>T. cubensis</em> extract + levamisole were administered to the animals. The animals were divided into six equal groups. Animals in the control group (n = 10) did not receive any treatment. The animals in the experimental group were administered Ivermectin [three times a week, n = 10, subcutaneous, (SC)], <em>Tarantula cubensis</em> extract (twice a week, n = 10, SC), autologous vaccine (three times at 10-day intervals, n = 10, SC), levamisole [twice at one-week intervals, n = 10, intramuscular (IM)], and levamisole + <em>Tarantula cubensis</em> extract (concurrently). All animals used in the study were monitored for three months at an interval of 15 days. No regression was detected in the papillomas of the control group animals, but recovery was recorded in animals treated with ivermectin at a rate of 70% (7/10), while it was 60% (6/10) in those treated with <em>T. cubensis</em> extract, 100% (10/10) in those treated with autovaccine, 50% (5/10) in those treated with levamisole, and 90% (9/10) in those treated with the combination of <em>T. cubensis</em> extract + levamisole. Significant differences were found between the control group and all treatment groups. Recovery mostly occurred within 45–60 days (P &lt; 0.05). The five treatment modalities applied for the treatment of bovine cutaneous papillomatosis were statistically evaluated and all methods of treatment were effective at different rates. The most precise and effective treatment method was the autovaccine one.</p> Yakup Yildirim Ali Küçük Mehmet Kale Sibel Hasircioğlu Kamil Atli Hasbi Sait Saltik Copyright (c) 2024 Yakup Yildirim, Ali Küçük, Mehmet Kale, Sibel Hasircioğlu, Kamil Atli, Hasbi Sait Saltik http://127.0.0.1/foo.html 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 59 4 10.12834/VetIt.3138.21450.2 Occurrence of enteric viruses causing clinical diarrhea in small ruminants in northern Indian plains: a reverse transcription PCR based molecular study https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/3005 <p>Fowlpox virus (FPV) infects chickens and turkeys giving rise to pock lesions on various body parts like combs, wattles, legs, shanks, eyes, mouth, etc. The birds, affected with FPV, also show anemia and a ruffled appearance which are clinical symptoms of reticuloendotheliosis. Interestingly, the field strains of FPV are integrated with the provirus of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). Due to this integration, the infected birds, upon replication of FPV, give rise to free REV virions, causing severe immunosuppression and anemia. Pox scabs, collected from the infected birds, not only show positive PCR results upon performing FPV-specific <em>4b core protein</em> gene PCR but also show positive results for the PCR of REV-specific <em>env </em>gene and <em>FPV-REV 5’LTR junction</em>. Homogenized suspension of the pock lesions, upon inoculating to the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-day-old specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs, produces characteristic pock lesions in serial passages. However, the lesions also harbor REV mRNA or free virion, which can be identified by performing REV-specific <em>env</em> gene PCR using REV RNA from FPV-infected CAMs. The study suggests successful replication and availability of REV mRNA and free virion alongside the FPV, although the CAM is an ill-suited medium for any retroviral (like REV) growth and replication.</p> Sapna Prajapati Gururaj Kumaresan Manish Kumar Dimple Andani Anil Kumar Mishra Ashok Kumar R.V.S. Pawaiya Nitika Sharma Anu Rahal Dinesh Kumar Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 Sapna Prajapati, Gururaj Kumaresan, Manish Kumar, Dimple Andani, Anil Kumar Mishra, Ashok Kumar, R.V.S. Pawaiya, Nitika Sharma, Anu Rahal, Dinesh Kumar Sharma http://127.0.0.1/foo.html 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 59 4 10.12834/VetIt.3005.20299.2 Serological Investigation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Commercially Reared Pigs, Southwestern Nigeria https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/3021 <p>Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic arbovirus that causes abortion, stillbirth, and congenital defects in pigs, and epidemic encephalitis in humans. Currently, there is scarcity of information on JEV infection in pigs in Nigeria. Since the <em>Culex tritaeniorhynchus</em> vector of JEV is present in Nigeria and considering recent anecdotal reports of abortions and birth of weak piglets in some pig farms in southwestern Nigeria, there is a need for studies on the presence of the virus and its true burden among pig populations in the country. Serum samples (n=368) obtained from farm-reared pigs in four States of southwestern Nigeria were screened for JEV-specific IgG antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. An overall JEV seropositivity of 35.1% (95% CI: 30.18 – 39.93%) was obtained, with detectable antibodies in pigs of all age groups, breeds, sex, and locations. Our results suggest natural exposure of these unvaccinated intensively reared pigs to JEV circulating silently in the swine population with significant association of the seropositivity with location (state/community in which the pig farms exist) and breed of the pigs studied. This first report of detection of anti-JEV antibodies in pigs in Nigeria indicates that JEV circulated among these pigs and underscores the need for active surveillance for JEV in humans, pigs, and mosquitoes to provide valuable epidemiological data for the design of effective control strategies against the virus, thus forestalling potential future outbreaks of the infection.</p> Richard Adeleke Tobi Olanipekun John Abiola Adegboyega Aluko Waidi Sule Daniel Oluwayelu Copyright (c) 2024 Richard Adeleke, Tobi Olanipekun, John Abiola, Adegboyega Aluko, Waidi Sule, Daniel Oluwayelu http://127.0.0.1/foo.html 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 59 4 10.12834/VetIt.3021.20221.2 Leishmania infantum surveillence on dogs from Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/3074 <p>The objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of <em>Leishmania infantum</em> in dogs in the city of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 109 serological samples from dogs were analyzed, collected between August 2021 to March 2022, using rapid immunochromatographic test, TR DPP® (LVC BioManguinhos), and Immunoenzymatic Assay (ELISA), EIE-Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (Bio-Manguinhos®, Fiocruz). IgG anti-<em>Leishmania infantum </em>antibodies were detected 4.6% (5/109) by DPP test. Regardless of results, all samples were submitted to ELISA test, of those 0.9% (1/109) was positive, the same having also been positive for the DPP, from asymptomatic, adult dog living in the urban area. This is the first autochthonous report of CVL in the municipality. Since Visceral <em>leishmaniasis</em> caused by <em>L.</em> infantum is a disease of <em>One Health</em> concern, the results obtained are essential to fill the epidemiological gap of in the region. Furthermore, the health authorities should implement surveillance actions in order to monitoring of dogs, as well as<em> survey</em> of<em> sand flies, and </em>health education programs to stimulate the prevention of the disease.</p> Phelipe Magalhães Duarte Sophia Oliveira Dantas Victor Felipe da Silva Araújo Joyci Torres d’Paula Leucio Câmara Alves José Wilton Pinheiro Junior Copyright (c) 2024 Phelipe Magalhães Duarte, Sophia Oliveira Dantas, Victor Felipe da Silva Araújo, Joyci Torres d’Paula, Leucio Câmara Alves, José Wilton Pinheiro Junior http://127.0.0.1/foo.html 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 59 4 10.12834/VetIt.3074.20907.2 Isolation and identification of Clostridium perfringens and its toxins from mutton in Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/2926 <p>The present study was aimed to detect <em>C. perfringens</em> and identify its toxins in mutton samples collected from Lahore City in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. A total of 40 samples of minced and non‑minced mutton were collected from local butcher and retail shops representing four areas of the city. The samples were subjected to ELISA for the detection of <em>C. perfringens</em> alpha, beta and epsilon toxins. The samples were simultaneously processed for bacterial isolation. The isolates were confirmed both by biochemical testing and a multiplex PCR targeting alpha, beta and epsilon toxin genes of <em>C. perfringens</em>. While 10% (4/40) of the samples were positive for <em>C. perfringens</em> alpha toxins, 17.5% (7/40) of the samples were positive for the alpha toxin gene. The present study indicated that the samples collected from the local butcher shops were contaminated with <em>C. perfringens</em> and its toxins. Interestingly, no such contamination was detected in any of the samples collected from retail meat shops. In conclusion, improper hygienic conditions at butcher shops could lead to the contamination of mutton with <em>C. perfringens</em> and its toxins.</p> Suqaina Tul Abiha Shahan Azeem Aftab Ahmad Anjum Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2024 Suqaina Tul Abiha, Shahan Azeem, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq http://127.0.0.1/foo.html 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 59 4 10.12834/VetIt.2926.20055.3 Isolation of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus from Chorio-allantoic Membrane of SPF Chicken Eggs inoculated with Fowl Pox Virus https://www.veterinariaitaliana.izs.it/index.php/VetIt/article/view/3164 <p>Fowl Pox Viruses (FPV) infect chickens and turkeys giving rise to pock lesions on various body parts like combs, wattles, legs, shanks, eyes, mouth etc. The birds, affected with FPV, also show anemia and ruffled appearance which are clinical symptoms of Reticuloendotheliosis. Interestingly, the field strains of FPV are integrated with the provirus of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus (REV). Due to this integration, the infected birds, upon replication of FPV, give rise to free REV virions, causing severe immunosuppression and anemia. Pox scabs, collected from the infected birds, not only show positive PCR results upon performing FPV-specific <em>4b core protein</em> gene PCR but also show positive results for the PCR of REV-specific <em>env </em>gene and <em>FPV-REV 5’LTR junction</em>. Homogenized suspension of the pock lesions, upon inoculating to the Chorio-allantoic Membrane (CAM) of 10 days old specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs, produces characteristic pock lesions in serial passages. But the lesions also harbor REV mRNA or free virion, which can be identified by performing REV-specific env gene PCR using REV RNA from FPV-infected CAMs. The study suggests successful replication and availability of REV mRNA and free virion alongside the FPV virus, although the CAM is an ill-suited medium for any retroviral (like REV) growth and replication.</p> Nilabja Roy Chowdhury Bimalendu Mondal Sanchay K. Biswas Apratim Maity Kunal Batabyal Subhasis Batabyal Copyright (c) 2024 Nilabja Roy Chowdhury, Bimalendu Mondal, Sanchay K. Biswas, Apratim Maity, Kunal Batabyal, Subhasis Batabyal http://127.0.0.1/foo.html 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 59 4 10.12834/VetIt.3164.21331.2