Larvae and adult flies of Rhinoestrus purpureus and R. usbekistanicus: morphology and pupation (Diptera: Oestridae)


Rhinoestrus purpureus
Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus

How to Cite

Rahman, M. I. A. (2022). Larvae and adult flies of Rhinoestrus purpureus and R. usbekistanicus: morphology and pupation (Diptera: Oestridae). Veterinaria Italiana, 58(2). https://doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.2085.12058.2


Rhinoestrus species larvae are considered obligatory parasites of the nasal cavities of equine. This type of myiasis is characterised by sneezing, coughing, olfactory nerve damage and encephalomyelitis. Also, it has a zoonotic importance as the larvae might cause ophthalmomyiasis and conjunctivitis in human. While few studies describing R. purpureus adult fly antennal sensillae are available, the R. usbekistanicus antennal sensillae have never been described. Also, scanty data are available on the adult flies of Rhinoestrus species morphology. For this reason, the current study aimed at identiying and comparing different Rhinoestrus species (larvae, adult flies and time of pupation). Using light and scanning electron microscopy, we have evidenced differences between R. purpureus, R. usbekistanicus larvae in spination pattern, shape of spines, peritremes shape and ultrastrucures. The study also showed that for both species the pupa required 15‑21 days at room temperature to develop into adult flies, identified the adult male flies and female external genitalia have been identified. As well, the gross features of R. purpureus and R. usbekistanicus adult flies which included the disposition of the parafrontalia and parafascialia tubercles, mesonotal weals, wings and abdominal pellonisityhave been characterised and the sensillae compared.


Abdel Rahman M.M.I., Hassanen E.A.A. & AbdelMageed M.A. 2018. Light and scanning electron microscopy of Gasterophilus intestinalis (larvae and adult fly) infesting donkeys with emphasis on histopathology of the induced lesions. EVMPSJ,14, 15–31.

Angulo-Valadez C.E., Scholl P.J., Cepeda-Palacios R., Jacquiet P. & Dorchies P. 2010. Nasal bots...a fascinating world!. Vet Parasitol, 174, 19–25.

Bräuer P., Neinhuis C. & Voigt D. 2016. Attachment of honeybees and greenbottle flies to petal surfaces. Arthropod-Plant Inter, 11, 171–192.

Clyne P.J., Certel S.J., Bruyne M., Zaslavsky L., Johnson W.A. & Carlson J.R. 1999. The odor specificities of a subset of olfactory receptor neurons are governed by Acj6, a POU-domain transcription factor. Neuron, 22, 339–347.

Colwell D.D., Hall M.J.R. & Scholl P.J. 2006. The oestrid flies_ biology, host-parasite relationships, impact and management. CABI International, London, UK.

Deconinck P., Pangui L.J., Githego A. & Dorchies P. 1996. Prévalence de Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus (Gan 1947) chez l’ˆane (Equus asinus) au Sénégal. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop, 49, 38–40.

Di Marco V., Riili S., Vullo S., Capecchio M.T. & Dorchies P. 2001. One case of equine myiasis caused by Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus., Proc. 18th International Conference of theWorld Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). Stresa, Italy, August 26–30, 120.

Dong J., Bao H. & Mang L. 2017. Ultramorphological and molecular characteristics of the larval stages of the horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus sp. (Diptera: Oestridae) from Mongolian horse in China. Microsc Res Tech, 1–9.

Greenberg B. 1971. Flies and disease. Ecology, classification and biotic associations. Princeton University Press, NJ.

Grunin K.J. 1966. Oestridae. Die Fliegen der PalaÈarktischen Region. Schweizerbart'sche, Stuttgart.

Guitton C., Dorchies P. & Morand S. 1996. Scanning electron microscopy of larval instars and imago of Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus Gan, 1947 (Oestridae). Parasite 3, 155–159.

Guitton C., Dorchies P. & Morand S. 1997. Morphological comparison of second stage larvae of Oestrus ovis (Linnaeus, 1758), Cephalopina titillator (clark, 1816) and Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus gan, 1947 (Oestridae) using scanning electron microscopy. Parasite, 4, 277–282.

Hilali M.A., Mahdy O.A. & Attia M.M. 2015. Monthly variations of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae infesting donkeys in Egypt: Morphological and molecular identification of third stage larvae. J Adv Res, 6, 1015–1021.

Hunter F.F. & Adserballe C.F. 1996. Cuticular structures on the antennae of Hypoderma bovis De Geer (Diptera: Oestridae) females. Int J Insect Morphol Embryol 25, 173–181.

Kurahashi H. & Samerjai C. 2018. Revised keys to the flesh flies of Thailand, with the establishment of a new genus (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Med Entomol Zool, 69, 67–93.

Liu X.H., Li X.Y., Li K. & Zhang D. 2015. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae). Parasitol Res, 114, 2527–2533. .

Moophayak K., Sanit S., Chaiwong T., Sukontason K., Kurahashi H., Sukontason K.L., Vogtsberger R.C. & Bunchu N. 2017. Morphological Characteristics of Terminalia of the Wasp-Mimicking Fly, Stomorhina discolor (Fabricius). Insects, 8 (1), 11. doi:10.3390/insects8010011.

Otranto D., ColwelL D.D., Milillo P., Marco V.D., Paradies P., Napoli C. & Giannetto S. 2004. Report in Europe of nasal myiasis by Rhinoestrus spp. in horses and donkeys: seasonal patterns and taxonomical considerations. Vet Parasitol, 122, 79–88.

Otranto D., Milillo P., Traversa D. & Colwell D.D. 2005. Morphological variability and genetic identity in Rhinoestrus spp. causing horse nasal myiasis. Med Vet Entomol, 19, 96–100.

Pape T. 2001. Phylogeny of Oestridae (Insecta: Diptera). Syst Entomol, 26, 133–171.

Peyresblanques J. 1964. Myases oculares. Ann Oculistic, 197, 271–295.

Poddighe S., Dekker T., Scala A. & Angioy A.M. 2010. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly. Naturwissen, 97, 827–835.

Resh V.H. & Carde R.T. 2009. Encyclopedia of insects. Academic Press, London.

Romani R., Bedini S., Salerno G., Ascrizzi R., Flamini G., Echeverria M.C., Farina P. & Conti B. 2019. Andean flora as a source of new repellents against insect pests: behavioral, morphological and electrophysiological studies on Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Insects, 10, 171.

Sukontason K.L., Bunchu N., Methanitikorn R., Chaiwong T., Kuntalue B. & Sukontason K. 2006. Ultrastructure of adhesive device in fly in families Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae, and their implication as mechanical carriers of pathogens. Parasitol Res, 98, 477–481.

Sukontason K.L., Sanit S., Klong-Klaew T., Tomberlin J.K. & Sukontason K. 2014. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): A flesh fly species of medical importance. Bio Res, 47, 14.

Tibayrenc R., Garba D. & Dorchies P. 1999. Prévalence de Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus (Gan, 1947) chez l’ˆane (Equus asinus) dans la région de Niamey, Niger. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop, 52, 113–115.

Wang Y., Li D., Liu Y., Li X.J., Cheng W.N. & Zhu-Salzman K. 2016. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Gehin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). J Insect Sci (Online), 16, 1–12.

Zayed A.A. 1992. Studies on Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae infesting donkeys (Equus asinus) in Egypt. III. Pupal duration under controlled conditions. Vet Parasitol, 44, 285– 290.

Zayed A.A., Abdel-Shafy S. & El- Khateeb R.M. 2008. Surface ultrastructure of posterior abdominal spiracles of third instars of nasal bots of Cephalopina titillator, Oestrus ovis and Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae) infesting camels, sheep and donkeys in Egypt. Res J Parasitol, 3, 1–11.

Zhang D., Wang Q.K., Hu D.F. & Li K. 2012. Sensilla on the antennalfuniculus of the stomach bot fly, Gasterophilus nigricornis (Diptera: Oestridae). Med Vet Entomol, 26, 314–322.

Zhang D., Li X., Liu X., Wang Q. & Pape T. 2016. The antenna of horse stomach bot flies: morphology and phylogenetic implications (Oestridae, Gasterophilinae: Gasterophilus Leach). Sci Report, 6, 34409.

Zumpt F. 1958. On Rhinoestrus steyni n.sp. and Gasterophilus zebrae Rodhain & Bequaert (Diptera), parasites of Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli Gray). J Ent Soc S Africa, 21, 56–65.

Zumpt F. 1965. Myiasis in man and animals in the old world. London, Butterworths.

Copyright (c) 2022 Veterinaria Italiana