AbstractThe aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in poultry in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria. Four organs – kidney, liver, muscle, and gizzard – were harvested from 100 commercial broiler birds and tested using the Three Plate Test (microbiological method) with Bacillus subtilis as test organism. Of the 100 sampled birds, 64 were positive for antimicrobial residues, with a prevalence of 64%. Out of 400 organs, 155 were positive for antimicrobial residues, with different prevalence values observed in the harvested organs. Our findings indicate an association between the type of organ and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues, with the kidney having the highest prevalence (p value: < 0.0001, Chi Square test). Overall, in this study, commercial poultry were found to contain multiple antimicrobial residues, which strongly suggest the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in livestock production.
Aerts M.M.L, Hogenboom A.C. & Brinkman U.A. 1995. Analytical strategies for the screening of veterinary drugs and their residues in edible products. J Chromatogr, 667, 1‑20.
Chang C.Sh., Tai T.F. & Li H.P. 2000. Evaluating the applicability of the modified four‑plate test on the determination of antimicrobial agent residues in pork. Journal of Food and Drug Analytics, 8 (1), 25‑34.
Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). 2011. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, 31 (1), 18‑20.
Dipeolu M.A & Dada A.C. 2005. Residues of tetracycline in imported frozen chickens in South West Nigeria. Tropical Veterinarian, 23 (1), 1‑4.
Dipeolu M.A. & Alonge D.O. 2002. Residues of streptomycin antibiotic in meat sold for human consumption in some States of SW Nigeria. Archivos de Zootecnia, 51, 477‑480.
Ezenduka E.V., Oboegbulem S.I. & Nwanta J.A. 2014. Rapid detection of antimicrobial residues in poultry: a consequence of non‑prudent use of antimicrobials. Health, 6 (2), 1‑4.
Ezenduka E.V., Oboegbulem S.I., Nwanta J.A. & Onunkwo J. 2011. Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health Prod, 43, 557‑559.
Haasnoot W., Stouten P., Cazemier G., Lommen A., Nouws F.M. & Keukens H.J. 1999. Immunochemical detection of aminoglycosides in milk and kidney. Analyst, 124, 301‑305. http://archive.ispub.com/journal/the‑internet‑journal‑of‑veterinary‑medicine.
Ibrahim A.I, Junaidu A.U. & Garba M.K. 2010. Multiple antibiotic residues in meat from slaughtered cattle in Nigeria. Internet J Vet Med, 8, 1‑4.
Jabbar A. 2004. Microbiological evaluation of antibiotic residues in meat, milk and eggs. MSc. Thesis, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Javadi A., Mirzaei H. & Khatibi S.A. 2009. Effect of roasting process on antibiotic residues in edible tissues of
poultry by FPT plate. Journal of Animal Veterinary Adv, 8 (12), 2468‑2472.
Kabir J., Umoh J.U., Umoh V.J. & Audu‑Okoh Kwaga, J.K.P. 2004. Veterinary drug use in poultry farms and determination of antimicrobial drug residues in commercial eggs and slaughtered chicken in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Elsevier science Ltd. Food Control, 15, 99‑105.
Kirbis A. 2007. Microbiological screening method for detection of aminoglycosides, β‑lactams, macrolides,
teteracyclines and quinolones in meat samples. Slov Ret Res, 44 (1/2), 11‑18.
Mitchell J.M., Griffiths M.W., Mc Even S.A., Mc Nab W.B. & Yee J. 1998. Antimicrobial drug residues in milk and meat: causes, concerns, prevalence, regulations, tests, and test performance. Journal of Food Protection, 61, 742‑756.
Muhammad A.S., Muhammad S. & Sajjad U.R. 2007. Evaluation of a microbiological growth inhibition assay as a screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in poultry meat. American J Food Technol, 2 (5), 457‑461.
Myllyniemi A.L, Rintala R., Backman C. & Niemi A. 1999. Microbiological and chemical identification of antimicrobial drugs in kidney and muscle samples of cattle and pigs. Food Additives and Contaminants, 16, 339‑351.
Myllyniemi A.L. 2004. Development of microbiological methods for the detection and identification of antimicrobial residues in meat. Academic dissertation. Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Myllyniemi A.L., Nuotio L., Lindfors E., Rannikko R., Niemi A. and Backman C. 2001. A microbiological six plate method for the identification of certain antibiotic groups in incurred kidney and muscle samples. Analyst, 126, 641‑646.
Nisha A.R. 2008. Antibiotic residues ‑ a global health hazard. Veterinary World, 1 (12), 375‑377.
Nonga H.E., Mariki M., Karimuribo E.D. & Mdegela R.H. 2009. Assessment of antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial residues in broiler chickens in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8 (3), 203‑207.
Pavlov A.I., Lashev L.I. & Vachin Rusea V. 2008. Residues of antimicrobial drugs in chicken meat and offals. Trakia J of Science, 6 (1), 23‑25.
Reig M. & Todra F. 2008. Veterinary drug in meat: concern and rapid methods for detection. Meat Science, 78, 60‑67.
Riviere J.E. & Sundlof S.F. 2001. Chemical residue in tissues of food animals. In Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics (Adams HR ed). 8th Ed., Blackwell Publishing Professional Iowa, 1166‑1174.
Shareef A.M., Jamel Z.T. & Yonis K.M. 2009. Detection of antibiotic residues in stored poultry products. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Science, 23, 45‑48.
Wattiau P., Renard M.E., Ledent P., Debois V., Blackman G. & Agathos S.N. 2001. A PCR test to identify Bacillus subtilis and closely related species and its application to the monitoring of wastewater bio‑treatment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 56, 816‑819.
Stark J. 2000. Antibiotika ‑ nachweis in fleisch. Fleischwirtschaft, 80, 46‑50.
Vollard E.J. & Clasener H.A.L. 1994. Colonization resistance. Antimicrobial Agent Chemotherapy, 38, 409‑414.