The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the antioxidant status and oxidative stress parameters in plasma and saliva in order to investigate the physiological conditions of dairy cows. Blood and saliva were collected from clinically healthy female calves (n = 18), sexually mature, non-pregnant cows (n = 19), and pregnant dairy cows (n = 15). Spectrophotometric and spectroflurimetric analyses were carried out in the body fluids of these animals. The level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma reached the lowest (p < 0.05) value in the group of sexually mature, non-pregnant cows (2.375 ± 0.500 μmol/g). A significant negative correlation (tau b = - 0.248, p < 0.05) was found between TAC values detected in plasma and saliva of examined animals. The highest (p < 0.05) mean values of thiol groups were detected in both plasma (0.007 ± 0.0015 mmol/g) and saliva (0.276 ± 0,116 mmol/g) of mature, non‑pregnant cows. Conversely, the highest (p < 0.05) levels of formylokinurenine concentration were detected in saliva (11.535 ± 3.785 μg/mg) and plasma (0.133 ± 0.0237 μg/mg) of pregnant dairy cows. A significant positive correlation (tau b = 0.255, p < 0.05) was also found between the bityrosine content detected in plasma and saliva of the examined cows. In conclusion, although with regards to antioxidant/oxidative parameters saliva reflects the content of plasma only in part, however it shows age-related differences that can be used in the description of the physiological status of cows.
Ayres S., Abplanalp W., Liu J.H. & Subbiah M.T. 1998. Mechanisms involved in the protective effect of estradiol‑17beta on lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Am J Physiol, 274 (Pt l): E1002‑8.
Bansal M. & Kaushal N. 2014. Introduction to oxidative stress mechanism and their modulation. Springer India, 366 pp.
Bartosz G. 2003. Druga Twarz Tlenu. Wolne Rodniki W Przyrodzie [Second face of oxygen. Free radical in nature]. Warsaw, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Bednarek‑Tupikowska G. 2002. Antioxidant properties of estrogens. Ginekologia Polska, 73, 61‑67.
Benzie Iris F.F. & Strain J.J. 1996. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP ) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem, 239, 70‑76.
Čolak E. 2008. New markers of oxidative damage to macromolecules. J Med Biochem, 27 (1), 1‑16.
Diczfalusky E. & Mancuso S. 1969. Foetus and placenta (Klopper A. & Diczfalusky E., eds). Blackwell, Oxford.
Faulkner S., Elia G., O’Boyle P., Dunn M. & Morris D. 2013. Composition of the bovine uterine proteome is associated with stage of cycle and concentration of systemic progesterone. Proteomics, 13, 3333‑3353.
Giergiel M., Wawrzykowski J. & Kankofer M. 2016. Comparison between endometrial protein profile in Holstein‑Friesian heifers and female prepubertal calves. Vet Ital, accepted for publishing.
Gornal A.G., Bardawill C.J. & David M.M. 1949. Determination of serum proteins by means of the biuret method reaction. J Biol Chem, 177 (2), 751‑766.
Kankofer M. 2001. Protein peroxidation processes in bovine retained and not‑retained placenta. J Vet Med A, 48 (4), 207‑212.
Lamy E. & Mau M. 2012. Saliva proteomics as an emerging, non‑invasive tool to study livestock physiology, nutrition and diseases. J Proteomics, 75 (14), 4251‑4258.
Lima D.P., Diniz D.G., Moimaz S.A., Sumida D.H. & Okamoto A.C. 2010. Saliva: reflection of the body. Int J Infec Dis, 14, 184‑188.
Massafra C., Gioia D., De Felice C., Picciolini E., De Leo V., Bonifazi M. & Bernabei B. 2000. Effects of estrogens and androgens on erythrocyte antioxidant superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase
activities during the menstrual cycle. J Endocrinol, 167, 447‑452.
Miricescu D., Greabu M., Totan A., Didilescu A. & Radulescu R. 2011. The antioxidant potential of saliva: clinical significance in oral diseases. Therapeutics, Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology, 15 (2), 139‑143.
Mooradian A.D. 1993. Antioxidant properties of steroids. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 45 (6), 509‑511.
Muthukumar S., Rajkumar R., Rajesh D., Saibaba G., Liao C.C., Archunan G., Padmanabhan P. & Gulyas B. 2014. Exploration of salivary proteins in buffalo: an approach to find marker proteins for estrus. FASEB Journal,
Onuma H., Hahn J. & Foote R.H. 1970. Factors affecting superovulation, fertilization and recovery of superovulated ova in prepuberal cattle. J Reprod Fertil, 21, 119‑126.
Oztürk L.K., Akyüz S., Yarat A., Koç S., Gül N. & Dogan B.N. 2010. Salivary lipid peroxidation and total sialic acid levels during healthy gestation and postpartum: a longitudinal study. Clin Biochem, 43 (4‑5), 430‑434.
Pajović S.B. & Saicić Z.S. 2008. Modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities by sexual steroid hormones. Physiol Res, 57, 801‑811.
Petropoulos I. & Friguet B. 2006. Maintenance of protein and aging: the role of oxidized protein repair. Free Radical Research, 40, 1269‑1276.
Pfohl M., Pfeilschifter J., Ko R. & Schatz H. 2002. Changes in proinflammatory cytokine activity after menopause. Endocr Rev, 23, 90‑119.
Reyes M.R., Sifuentes‑Alvarez A. & Lazalde B. 2006. Estrogens are potentially the only steroids with an antioxidant role in pregnancy: in vitro evidence. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 85, 1090‑1093.
Rice‑Evans C.A., Diplock A.T. & Symons M.C.R. 1991. Techniques in free radical research. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Rizzo A., Roscino M.T., Binetti F. & Sciorsci R L. 2012. Roles of reactive oxygen species in female reproduction. Reprod Domestic Anim, 47 (2), 344‑352.
Schulz B.L., Cooper‑White J. & Punyadeera C.K. 2013. Saliva proteome research: current status and future outlook. Critical Rev Biotechnol, 33, 246‑259.
Skrzydlewska E. & Farbiszewski F. 1995. Interakcje Wolnych Rodników Z Białkami. Postępy Higieny I Medycyny Doświadczalnej, 49, 747‑766.
Sugioka K., Shimosegawa K. & Nakano M. 1987. Estrogens as natural antioxidants of membrane phospholipid peroxidation. FEBS Letters, 210, 37‑39.